We, governments, international and regional organizations, international and regional financial institutions, philanthropic and private sector entities, and organizations from the climate, environment, development, humanitarian, and peace sectors, as identified below.

On the occasion of the 28th UN Climate Change Conference, the first Global Stocktake under the Paris Agreement, as well as the first Relief, Recovery and Peace Day at a COP, call for bolder collective action to build climate resilience at the scale and speed required in highly vulnerable countries and communities, particularly those threatened or affected by fragility or conflict, or facing severe humanitarian needs, many of which are Least Developed Countries and Small Island Developing States.

We stress that an ambitious, immediate scale up of enhanced support is urgently needed in such situations, including financial resources; technical and institutional capacities; local, national, regional partnerships; and data and information, recognizing the importance of complementarity and predictability.

Recalling the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Paris Agreement, and the promise of leaving no one behind in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and cognizant of the suffering created by the effects of climate change, environmental degradation and biodiversity loss and the importance of averting, minimizing, and addressing loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change,

Recognizing that many of the people, communities, and countries threatened or affected by fragility or conflict, or facing severe humanitarian needs, are on the frontlines of the climate crisis, and are among the least resourced to cope with and adapt to associated shocks and stressors,

Acknowledging that fragility and conflict increase people’s vulnerability and exposure to climate hazards and impede coping capacity and adaptation options, and that, at the same time, climate change adversely affects lives, livelihoods, infrastructure, water, human capital, food, health, cultural identity, education, and human settlements, among other spheres, exacerbating humanitarian needs and constituting a significant and growing challenge to stability,

Alarmed by the disproportionate and intersecting effects of climate change, conflict, fragility and/or humanitarian crises on women and girls, children and young people, indigenous peoples and local communities, people with disabilities, older persons, and on refugees, other displaced persons, and their hosting communities, among other populations,

Deeply concerned that global efforts to build climate resilience remain insufficiently tailored or targeted to the specific needs and challenges of people, communities and countries threatened or affected by fragility or conflict, or facing severe humanitarian needs, including due to real and perceived risks and barriers associated with working in such settings,

Emphasizing that climate action in these settings is possible and if managed properly, can offer avenues for sustainable development, conflict prevention and inclusive peace building,

Taking note of and supporting critically important efforts to evolve the international financial architecture, and building on efforts and initiatives such as the COP26 Taskforce on Access to Climate Finance, the COP27 Presidency’s Climate Responses for Sustaining Peace (CRSP), the UN Climate Security Mechanism, the Climate for Peace Initiative, and the Early Warnings for All Initiative,

We commit to pursue, in line with our respective mandates, in partnership with international, regional, national, and local actors, and in alignment with existing instruments, particularly national adaptation plans or other adaptation strategies, the following objectives in the context of climate change in situations of fragility, conflict, or severe humanitarian needs:

Enhanced financial support for climate adaptation and resilience by:

1. Continuing to substantially scale-up financial resources for climate adaptation and resilience building in such situations, emphasizing the need for public and grant-based resources, as well as mobilizing a variety of financing sources, while recognizing the importance of environmental and social safeguards,

2. Improving access to all relevant financial resources, including by enhancing predictability, flexibility, disbursement, speed, and simplicity, and working to reducing transaction costs, including by streamlining application, accreditation, procurement, and monitoring and evaluation procedures,

3. Strengthening the technical and institutional capacity of national governments and local actors, to absorb, account for, report on, allocate, and leverage climate finance effectively,

4. Prioritizing local ownership, impact, and results where possible, including through channeling finance at the local level to respond to local needs and priorities and working with affected communities and both local government and non-government partners,

5. Leveraging financial and technical support from the private sector and adopting tailored financial instruments to mobilize new sources of finance in support of national and local responses,

6. In line with existing reporting requirements for our respective organizations, continue to monitor commitment and disbursement of climate finance to countries affected by fragility or conflict, or facing severe humanitarian needs, to help identify gaps.

Understand and improve good practice and programming by:

7. Investing in the design, piloting, delivery and scaling up of climate adaptation programming that is informed by the most vulnerable and hard to reach populations and communities, including through preparedness and prevention, early warning and anticipatory and early action, and disaster risk finance mechanisms; ecosystem restoration, protection, and sustainable use; sustainable agriculture; building climate-smart infrastructure and resilient food, water, and energy systems; and strengthening shock-responsive and inclusive social protection systems,

8. Contributing to strengthening the evidence base on the effective delivery of climate action in countries or communities affected by fragility or conflict, leveraging the experiences and knowledge generated by humanitarian, peace, disaster risk management, and development actors, as well as researchers and academics, and building on community and indigenous knowledge,

9. Enabling greater adaptability in implementation and delivery of programs, to enhance disbursement rates and enable anticipatory action and rapid and effective responses by a wider range of delivery partners to changing conditions,

10. Considering how to best incorporate conflict-sensitive approaches across the project cycle, to help ensure climate action avoids aggravating new or existing grievances, respects the human rights of all people affected, reinforces social cohesion, supports human development and peace, and promotes environmental peace building,

11. Enhancing granular and integrated, gender-responsive risk and vulnerability mapping at the transboundary, national, subnational and community level, including through monitoring and forecasting, as appropriate, to identify shocks and longer-term trends impacting people and communities,

12. Promoting the leadership and empowerment of affected groups, including civil society, women, indigenous peoples, youth, people with disabilities, refugees, displaced populations, and their hosting communities, as well as other affected groups, to actively participate in policy making, programming design, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation, supported by education and training, to enhance ownership, impact, and sustainability of climate action.

Strengthen coordination, collaboration, and partnerships by:

13. Optimizing complementarity of mandates and expertise across climate, development, humanitarian, disaster risk management, and peace actors to further the efficiency, sustainability, and effectiveness of short- and long-term investments, including by providing earlier and more timely support, with the aim to yield cumulative increases in the adaptive capacity, recovery, and resilience of people and communities,

14. Strengthening operational partnerships and synergies across governments, international and regional organizations, financial institutions and mechanisms, civil society, local communities, the private sector, and other actors to tailor climate action to context and needs, and to deliver coordinated, inclusive programs and sustainable solutions for greater impact,

15. Enhancing the exchange of information between countries and regions, institutions, and sectors, and sharing data and evidence, including early warning and analysis of climate-related risks, strengthening accuracy, reliability, and open accessibility of data.

We commit to contribute to the operationalization of this declaration, in line with our mandates and governance structures. We will continue to raise the objectives of the declaration, including in relevant international fora, and will reconvene at the 29th UN Climate Change Conference to review progress and initiate potential additional action.


1. Albania
2. Antigua and Barbuda
3. Armenia
4. Austria
5. Azerbaijan
6. Bahamas
7. Bahrain
8. Bangladesh
9. Belgium
10. Brunei Darussalam
11. Bulgaria
12. Burkina Faso
13. Burundi
14. Cabo Verde
15. Cambodia
16. Canada
17. Chad
18. Colombia
19. Cook Islands
20. Costa Rica
21. Cote d’Ivoire
22. Croatia
23. Cyprus
24. Czech Republic
25. Denmark
26. Dominican Republic
27. Egypt
28. El Salvador
29. Estonia
30. Eswatini
31. Ethiopia
32. European Union
33. Fiji
34. Finland
35. France
36. Germany
37. Greece
38. Guatemala
39. Haiti
40. Hungary
41. Iceland
42. Ireland
43. Italy
44. Jamaica
45. Japan
46. Jordan
47. Kenya
48. Kiribati
49. Kyrgyz Republic
50. Latvia
51. Lebanon
52. Lesotho
53. Luxembourg
54. Malta
55. Moldova
56. Monaco
57. Mongolia
58. Morocco
59. Mozambique
60. Myanmar
61. Nauru
62. Nepal
63. Netherlands
64. Nicaragua
65. Nigeria
66. Norway
67. Palau
68. Papua New Guinea
69. Paraguay
70. Poland
71. Portugal
72. People’s Republic of China
73. Republic of the Marshall Islands
74. Republic of North Macedonia
75. Romania
76. Rwanda
77. Seychelles
78. Sierra Leone
79. Slovakia
80. Slovenia
81. Somalia
82. Spain
83. Sudan
84. Sweden
85. Switzerland
86. Timor Leste
87. Uganda
88. United Kingdom
89. Ukraine
90. United Arab Emirates
91. United States of America
92. Venezuela
93. Yemen


1. Acted
2. Adaptation Fund
3. Adelphi
4. African Development Bank
5. African Wildlife Foundation
6. All India Disaster Mitigation Institute
7. Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank
8. Center for Climate and Security
10. European Investment Bank

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What is the objective of the COP28 Declaration on Climate, Relief, Recovery and Peace?
How was this declaration developed?
What is the legal status of this document?
What are the main areas covered in the declaration?
Who should endorse the declaration?
How should endorsements be made?
What is the deadline for endorsement?
Are countries and institutions requested to make commitments after endorsing the Declaration?
What is the schedule like on the Relief, Recovery and Peace Day?