At this historic COP, countries came together to deliver the ‘UAE Consensus’ - the most ambitious and comprehensive set of negotiated outcomes to come out of the UNFCCC process since COP21.

A key component of the UAE Consensus is the decision on the GST to assess progress since Paris and put forward a plan to close implementation gaps to 2030. In a landmark agreement to bring a sectoral approach to the COP process, it calls on Parties to transition away from fossil fuels and to triple renewables and double energy efficiency globally by 2030. The decision also recognises the need to peak global emissions by 2025, taking into account different national starting points, and encourages countries to submit economy-wide Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). It also includes recognition of the crucial need to significantly scale up adaptation finance beyond doubling to meet urgent and evolving needs, and a clear call for countries to deliver National Adaptation Plans by 2025 and implement them by 2030. Finally, recognising the crucial role finance has to play in delivering ambition, the GST decision builds momentum behind a new global climate finance architecture in support of the post-2025 climate goal to be delivered at COP29.

Even if we stopped all emissions today, accelerated adaptation is still needed to respond to the devastating climate impacts already being experienced. In line with the mandate to develop an impactful Global Goal for Adaptation promised as part of the Paris Agreement, COP28 delivered the Emirates Framework for Global Climate Resilience. The framework is a step change that will put adaptation focus and action on a par with mitigation by galvanising not just governments, but also all non-party stakeholders to speed up and scale up action for adaptation. It defines how to do this through:

  • targets for a universal set of themes essential for sustainable development and human wellbeing (food, water, health, shelter, livelihoods, nature, biodiversity and culture); and,
  • targets on how to approach adaptation at local to national levels.

The framework also calls for regional and international cooperation, including for the first time asking to also look at the need to look at the transboundary nature of climate impacts.

From Day One, countries came together to truly innovate the COP process, with the fund for loss and damage promised at COP27 being adopted on the very first day of COP28. The new fund, to be hosted by the World Bank for an initial period of four years, will allocate resources based on the available evidence and with a minimum percentage allocated to least developed countries and Small Islands Developing States.

In demonstrating the spirit of international solidarity, 19 countries made commitments totalling $792 million towards the fund and funding arrangements related to loss and damage, including $100 million from the UAE.

Accelerating the normal pace of negotiations, COP28 also delivered a Just Transition Work Programme, only established at COP27. This three-year programme, which starts immediately, will drive ambitious, equitable implementation across all pillars of the Paris Agreement. Continuing the Presidency’s commitment to inclusion, it includes references to labour rights and social protection as part of adaptation, for the first time in the UNFCCC process.

COP28 also delivered on a Mitigation Work Programme, which was established at COP26, that effectively showcases opportunities and barriers to closing the ambition and implementation gap.

A Presidency-led initiative saw Parties agree that all future COP Presidencies should appoint a Presidency Youth Climate Champion, to help facilitate the engagement of children and youth in climate action, including in the UNFCCC process. This was the first time a Presidency has delivered this type of initiative under the Paris Agreement and will help to ensure that youth have an enhanced, highlevel voice at every future COP.

A range of other technical negotiations completed the ambitious package, including on non-market approaches and a technology implementation program.

On broader matters, a host for COP29 was agreed - Baku in Azerbaijan. With Belem in Brazil also confirmed as the host for COP30, this provides the opportunity of a ‘troika’ of Presidencies to inject both pace and stability into the COP process.


To ensure that we do not lose momentum, the UAE Consensus includes multiple actions that will be taken forward throughout the COP28 Presidency:

  • GST - First annual GST dialogue to be convened at the next UNFCCC meeting in June 2024, where countries will share best practice on using the GST outcome to inform their next NDCs. "Road map to Mission 1.5oC" to be taken forward by the UAE, Azerbaijan and Brazil Presidencies to help ensure that international cooperation stimulates ambition in those NDCs.
  • Emirates Framework for Global Climate Resilience - A work programme to further strengthen the indicators at the heart of the new framework will kick off in 2024. Countries need to provide written inputs to help inform this by March 2024.
  • Just Transition Work Programme - At least two dialogues to be convened before COP29 in a hybrid format to ensure inclusivity, and countries to provide further written evidence and inputs for the work programme by March 2024.
  • Mitigation Work Programme - Two global dialogues to be held through 2024, with countries submitting proposals for the topics they address by February 2024.
  • Presidency Youth Climate Champion - COP28 and COP29 Presidencies will appoint the first official Youth Climate Champions after the role was institutionalized at COP28.