When the United Arab Emirates took on the Presidency of the 28th Conference of Parties (COP28) last year, it was evident that it would host a different COP from previous editions, one that would significantly shift the conversation around climate change.


Not only did COP28 mark the first Global Stocktake, but put inclusion firmly at the core. We aimed to ingrain a new sense of optimism and hope, and toforge an unprecedented consensus through negotiations on the main pillars of the Paris Agreement. Our goal was to deliver on old promises and raise new ambitions on adaptation, mitigation and means of implementation.


COP28 was more than a meeting of minds. It was a gathering of diverse voices, coming together to achieve what once seemed impossible, to set the world on a clear path to keep 1.5°C within reach, to protect those impacted by climate change and to leave no one behind.


The COP28 Action Agenda, centered on fast-tracking a justandorderlyenergytransition, fixingclimatefinance, focusing on people, nature, lives and livelihoods, and fostering inclusivity, provided a new path to make a difference.




Over the two weeks at COP28, over 100,000 people attended various events in the blue zone – 156 Heads of State and Government, 22 leaders of international organizations, over 780 ministers, 500 mayors, over 50,000 students and thousands of other key stakeholders, including parliamentarians, youth, businesses, philanthropies, civil society, and Indigenous Peoples. In the Green Zone, over 500,000 people attended numerous events hosted by the Presidency and by various partners.


Together, we met our historic challenge on 13 December 2023 by delivering the UAE Consensus which has, at its heart, the first Global Stocktake (GST), setting out the ambitious actions needed to keep 1.5°C within reach.


• The UAE Consensus includes an unprecedented reference to transitioning away from all fossil fuels in energy systems, in a just, orderly and equitable manner in this critical decade to enable the world to reach net zero emissions by 2050, in keeping with the science.


• Encourages Parties to accelerate “ambitious, economy-wide emission reduction targets” in their next nationally determined contributions.


• Offers a new, specific target on tripling renewables and doubling energy efficiency by 2030.


• Recognizes the need to significantly scale adaptation finance beyond doubling, to meet urgent and evolving needs.


Builds momentum towards reform of the global financial architecture, recognizing the role of credit rating agencies for the first time, and calling for the scaling up of concessional and grant finance.


While the Presidency will continue to guide, direct and encourage, it’s now up to the Parties to deliver the highest ambition for the GST.
On the first day of the summit, the COP28 Presidency set the tone by facilitating an agreement to operationalize Loss and Damage, which reached $792 million in commitments by the last day of the conference.


Under the Action Agenda, we issued 11 pledges and declarations, including the first-ever declarations on food systems transformation and health, and declarations on renewable energy and efficiency, as well as initiatives to decarbonize heavy emitting industries.


In total, COP28 mobilized more than $85 billion in funding, including $3.5 billion to replenish the Green Climate Fund (increasing the second replenishment to a historic $12.8 billion total) and almost $188 million toward the Adaptation Fund, setting the pace for a new era in climate action. We launched the world’s largest private market climate investment fund with $30 billion, and we brought 52 national and international oil companies to agree on ambitious decarbonization targets.


The rest of this document outlines both the Negotiated and Action Agenda outcomes that can help support the implementation of the historic UAE Consensus.


Together, we surprised the doubters and inspired the optimists, as we succeeded in delivering a momentous and meaningful response to the GST and addressing the future of fossil fuels. This is truly the COP that changed the game.


But we didn’t do it alone. The Executive Secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Simon Stiell, and the UN Climate Change team provided invaluable assistance and I thank them for all their efforts. I also want to recognize all the delegates, non-party stakeholders and observers, who dedicated their invaluable time, persevered in the midst of gridlock, and worked tirelessly to achieve the highest ambitions. I also want to thank the entire COP28 team and the people of the UAE for the hospitality they have shown.



Our work is far from over, but we now have clarity of direction. We are the architects of our future, and it is our duty, our privilege, and our responsibility to design a sustainable future where those who come after us can not only survive but thrive. It is vital to recognize that this conference is not the conclusion but the commencement of a new era of accelerated climate action, and we must now hold ourselves, and the world, accountable. The true test lies in ensuring these commitments materialize into tangible realities.



We are what we do, not what we say. As we transition from COP28 to COP29 and COP30. The UAE will work closely with the Governments of Azerbaijan and Brazil to facilitate a seamless transition and foster cooperation, and I trust these future Presidencies will sustain the momentum initiated at COP28.


The journey continues, and the challenges ahead require sustained commitment.

Let’s continue to unite, to act and to deliver.